Water- source of life and protection of war resources develo
China Building Materials News: Water is a human life and production activities indispensable resource is the foundation of sustainable economic and social development. Past 50 years, under the leadership of the party and the government, through the hard work of the people, water utilities have developed rapidly, initially formed water resources development and the construction of socialist modernization to adapt, use, protection and management system so that water resources It played a huge social, economic and environmental benefits, effectively protect the national economic development and social progress.
China is one of the worlds poor countries per capita water resources, spatial and temporal distribution of water resources is very uneven, not in harmony with the population, arable land, distribution of mineral resources, water resources development and utilization of great difficulty. With the rapid development of my countrys economy, increasing population and the improvement of peoples living standards, demand for water is growing. Effectively harnessing water resources development, utilization, configuration, conservation, protection, water resources and the demographic, social, economic, and environmental development, it is one of the key issues of sustainable social and economic development of China.
The basic characteristics of Chinas water resources
China Water Resources has the following characteristics:
1, more than the total water resources per capita less
Chinas total mean annual water resources 2.8124 trillion m3. Where the annual average river runoff is 2.7115 trillion m3, the average years of groundwater resources amount to 828.8 billion m3, double counting of water to 727.9 billion m3.
Many of total water resources in our country, after Brazil, Russia, Canada ranks fourth in the world. Because of Chinas large population, low per capita water resources. In 1995 the per capita share of water resources of 2,300 cubic meters, only a quarter of the world average. According to the current standard per capita water resources in the international community has 1000 to 2000 cubic meters, there will be a shortage of water; when less than 1,000 cubic meters, serious water shortages occur. Of the Yellow River, Huaihe River, (pieces) per capita possession of water resources in the Haihe River Basin in between 350 to 750 cubic meters of pine Liaohe River Basin (piece) Per capita water resources is only 1700 cubic meters, water in these areas tensions will persist.
2, annual river runoff, big changes during the year
interannual variability of river runoff.In the annual runoff timing change, the main northern rivers have appeared consecutive wet years and dry years in a row phenomenon. Yellow for example, there had been 11 years (1922 ~ 1932) of the dry season, which is 24% less than the average annual runoff normal year; 9 years have also seen (1943 ~ 1951) of the wet period, the average diameter of traffic and more than 19% of a normal year. Haihe River Basin in the eighties, there have been consecutive dry years. This continuous abundance, the phenomenon of dry years, is a major cause of flood and drought disasters, instability of agricultural production and water resources supply and demand sharp.
distribution of rainfall during the year is also uneven, mainly in flood. Runoff runoff accounted for in the region south of the Yangtze River flood season (April-July) of around 60%, some rivers in North Chinas flood season (June to September) up to 80%. However, due to the advantage of my country over the same period of rain and heat, crops can make full use of natural rainfall, create favorable conditions for improving agricultural production.
3, the distribution of water resources in the region does not match the other important resources layout
areas of uneven distribution of water resources, less south than in the north, from east to west less, significant differences between the population distribution of arable land, mineral resources and the economy do not match. According to the 1993 statistics, the North five (pine Liaohe River, Haihe River, Yellow River, Huaihe River and the Continental Rivers) population accounts for 46.5% of the total population, 65.3% of the countrys arable land, GDP accounted for 45.2% of the countrys water resources only accounting for 19% of the country; the South four (Yangtze River, Pearl River, southeast of rivers, Southwest rivers) population accounts for 53.5% of the countrys arable land accounted for 34.7% of the country, GDP accounted for 54.8% of the country, and a national water resources 81%. North five per capita possession of water resources is 1,127 cubic meters, per capita consumption of only four of the South 1/3.
water resources development and utilization of the development process
water resources development and utilization of a long history. Since ancient times, our working people committed to the defense of flood and drought, thousands of years, the construction of the Grand Canal, Dujiangyan, Lingqu and a number of well-known use of water resources engineering, played a resist floods and droughts in effect. But by the 19th century, the imperialist powers invasion and the years of war, modern Water Conservancy at a standstill. Until 1930, the Chinese have a number of modern water conservancy projects. However, due to the Kuomintang reactionary systemGovernance and the Japanese invasion, the existing water conservancy facilities in disrepair, dilapidated. After the founding of Peoples Republic of China in 1949, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, the National Peoples conducted a large-scale water conservancy construction, the cause of the rapid development of water resources, flood control waterlogging, irrigation, urban water supply, water conservation, aquaculture, hydropower , shipping and so much has been achieved.
Chinas water resources development and utilization of the development process can be divided into three different stages of development:
the early stages of development and utilization of water resources
Its main features are: on single target development of water resources, mainly irrigation, navigation and flood control. Based on its decisions often limited to a certain area or directly benefit local, rarely development and utilization of the whole or to the entire river basin as the goal. Since the early stages, the water availability is much greater than the socio-economic development demand for water, it gives people the impression that water is the "inexhaustible," the.
From the beginning of this stage can be broadly Dayu written records of the founding of New China. Although China has made many achievements in the history of development and utilization of water resources, but by 1949, the legacy of the old China Liao Liao little water conservancy, incomplete. According to statistics, when the embankments of rivers and coastal seawall length is only 42,000 kilometers, and the residual breaking bear, flood control standard is low; only six nationwide more than 100 million cubic meters capacity of large reservoirs (including water abundance of hydropower stations on the China-DPRK border river) volume of 0.1 to 1.0 billion cubic meters of medium-sized reservoirs and only 17 (including two fifties continued construction is completed). Irrigation area of 鈥嬧€?6 million hectares (2.4 million acres), and the guarantee is not high. For flood control engineering facilities are few, less water and electricity facilities, soil erosion, a lot of land salinization, desertification. The second phase
water resources development and utilization of
the development and utilization of water resources development goals by a single goal to the utilization of multiple targets, began to emphasize the unified planning of water resources, Hennessy pesticides, comprehensive use. In terms of technical methods, by a certain number of program planning and comparison, to determine ways to develop river basin or region, proposed the implementation of process engineering measures. But the focus and planning goals and evaluation methods to develop water resources, most of the needs of the regional economy as a precondition to technical and economic indicators of the optimal project or program basis, other than the economic aspects not covered, such asWater conservation, water conservation, ecological environment, the rational allocation and other issues. In the second phase, due to the large-scale water resources development and utilization of construction, you can use the water for water resources and socio-economic development gradually becomes more balanced, or natural water environment pollution load capacity and drainage gradually becomes more balanced, in some areas dry years, water shortages during the dry season occurs between supply and demand imbalance.
This stage can begin the new China was founded, to the late 1970s in some parts of the north began to water shortages. During this period, China conducted large-scale water resources development and management, improve the degree of utilization of water resources development, increase water supply capacity, irrigation area expanded to provide a guarantee for the rapid development of my countrys economy and society. According to statistics, in 1949 the national total water supply 103.1 billion cubic meters, of which 100.1 billion cubic meters of water supply agricultural, industrial and urban water supply only 30 billion cubic meters, 187 cubic meters per capita water consumption; in 1959 the total water supply to the country 193.8 billion cubic meters , accounting for 94.6% of agricultural water supply, industrial and urban water supply 5.4%, 316 cubic meters per capita water consumption; by 1980 the total water supply nationwide 391.2 billion cubic meters, accounting for 88% of agricultural water supply, industrial and urban water supply accounted for 12%, per capita water the amount of 450 cubic meters. In the meantime, the countrys irrigated area of 鈥嬧€?.4 million hectares in 1949, increased to 6.7 million hectares, 40 million people to solve the difficulties and 21 million livestock drinking water; the national hydropower installed capacity of 160,000 kilowatts in 1949, to 21 million kilowatts development where small hydropower installed capacity of 7.57 million kilowatts; inland navigable mileage of 73,600 km in 1949, to 1978 has grown to 136,000 km.
In the meantime, Chinas water pollution control work began in 1973, the country had to focus on industrial point sources of water pollution control work, the country has built more than 40,000 sets of industrial waste water processing means. And later conducted a comprehensive urban focus of regional environmental management, water pollution control range extends from point sources scattered industrial and mining enterprises to regional governance tens to hundreds of square kilometers. Water pollution control work has achieved some results.
water resources development and utilization of the third stage
began to emphasize should be closely integrated resource planning and productivity layout and industrial structure adjustment and the national economy such as water and soil in the development and utilization of water resources, unified management andSustainable development and utilization. Planning objectives and requirements from the macro factors and consider all aspects of society, economy and environment, water resources development, protection and management of organic combination of water resources and the coordinated development of population, economy, environment and development through the rational allocation, regional, economical use, effective protection, basic water balance total supply and total demand.
This stage may be from the late 1970s and early 1980s, until now. At this stage, due to the rapid development of rapid population and economic growth, the demand for water increases, or due to the effects of water pollution, water shortages show more common phenomenon, especially in the north and parts of the coastal region city, along with population growth and economic development, water shortage is serious, and increasingly serious water and environmental problems such as water pollution, overexploitation of groundwater, seawater intrusion. This stage, the water problems caused by the growing awareness of peoples attention, water resources, limited knowledge of water for everyone to accept. To solve the serious problem of water shortage in order to focus on the city, focusing on the construction of a number of key projects of water supply, water conservation work carried out all the people, the number of urban water supply and demand eased.
During this period, Chinas water pollution control a corresponding development. In particular through the lessons of serious pollution of the Huaihe River and Taihu, recognizing work at water pollution control, water pollution prevention and control must take into account the upstream and downstream along the rivers, tributaries, watershed should take comprehensive prevention and treatment basin as a unit, carry out " section sewage and his ilk (reducing the pollution load), open water source (increase dilution self-purification ability of the river), "the principle of pollution. Take Basin and combined in the management, flood control unity and common pollution. Full use of water conservancy facilities, rational management, improve self-purification capacity of water bodies. Since 1976, the gradual establishment of basin water resources protection agencies to watershed as a unit, and to develop the river basin water pollution control regulations and the relevant regulations. In the comprehensive management of water pollution, follow the "who pollute, who bears the responsibility" principle, and the water pollution prevention and control as part of an overall development plan of the river basin, into socio-economic development planning. Focus on the protection of drinking water sources, improve water quality, the implementation of planned water, water conservation policy. According to the different functional requirements and quality standards for rivers, lakes and reservoirs, the development of river basin water resources protection plan and organize the implementation. At the same time actively develop ecological agriculture, soil erosion prevention, control non-point source pollution and improving lifeState of the environment.
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